Secondary cancer in the liver happens when cancer cells spread to the liver from a primary cancer somewhere else in the body. Sometimes, cells break away from the primary cancer. These cancer cells are carried in the bloodstream or lymphatic system to another part of the body. The cells may stay in that part of the body and make a new tumour. If this happens, it is called a secondary cancer or a metastasis.
We have more information about the liver and what it does in our information about primary liver cancer.
Any type of cancer can spread to the liver. But some types are more likely to. These include:
- bowel cancer
- breast cancer
- cancer of the pancreas
- stomach cancer
- cancer of the oesophagus (gullet)
- lung cancer
- neuroendocrine tumours
If you have secondary liver cancer, it is best to read this information along with the information about the primary cancer you have.
Usually, people who get secondary cancer in the liver know they have cancer. But sometimes secondary liver cancer is found before the primary cancer is diagnosed. Sometimes the primary cancer cannot be found. This is called a cancer of unknown primary.
Sometimes cancer can start in the liver. This is called primary liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is rare in the UK. Secondary liver cancer is much more common.
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Secondary cancer in the liver may not cause any symptoms for a long time. In some people, it may be found during routine tests.
Possible symptoms may include:
- loss of appetite and feeling full soon after starting to eat
- tiredness (fatigue)
- the skin and whites of the eyes looking yellow (jaundice).
These symptoms can be caused by other conditions. But it is important to get them checked by your doctor or nurse.
We have more information about the symptoms of secondary liver cancer.
Tests and diagnosis
Secondary liver cancer may be diagnosed at the same time as the primary cancer. Or it may develop later. Sometimes it is found during regular scans as part of follow up after treatment for a primary cancer, such as bowel cancer. Some people are diagnosed after they develop symptoms caused by secondary liver cancer.
You may see your doctor (GP) or your cancer specialist. They will ask you about any symptoms you have and examine you. You may have some of the following tests and scans.
Liver ultrasound scan
Diagnosing the primary cancer
Occasionally, secondary cancer is found in the liver before the primary cancer is diagnosed.
If this happens, your doctor may arrange for you to have tests to find out where the primary cancer is. They can tell you more about these tests and what they involve.
Waiting for test results can be a difficult time. We have more information that can help.
Macmillan is also here to support you. If you would like to talk, you can:
Treatment for secondary cancer in the liver usually aims to control the cancer for as long as possible and reduce any symptoms.
The treatment you have depends on:
- where the cancer has spread from (the primary cancer)
- which parts of the liver are affected
- whether other parts of the body are affected.
Your treatment will be planned by a team of specialists called a multidisciplinary team (MDT).
Your cancer doctor or specialist nurse will explain the different treatments and their side effects. If two treatments are likely to be equally helpful, your doctor may ask you to decide which one to have. They will also talk to you about certain things to think about when making treatment decisions.
Ablation uses heat or cold to destroy cancer cells. Types of ablation used for secondary liver cancer include microwave ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, laser ablation and irreversible electroporation (IRE). We have more in our information about treatment for secondary liver cancer.
Only a small number of people will be able to have surgery. It is usually only possible for bowel cancers or neuroendocrine tumours that have spread to the liver but it may occasionally be an option for other types of cancer. Surgery is most commonly used if the cancer affects just a few areas of the liver and if there is no cancer anywhere else in the body
Supportive or palliative therapies
If you have secondary liver cancer, you will see your doctor regularly. They will monitor your health and treat any symptoms or discomfort caused by the cancer. You may have scans or blood tests to check the cancer or the effects of any treatment.
These appointments are a good chance to talk to your doctor about any worries or problems you have. But if you notice any new symptoms or are anxious about anything else between appointments, contact your doctor or specialist nurse for advice.
Below is a sample of the sources used in our secondary liver cancer information. If you would like more information about the sources we use, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
NICE. Liver cancers overview [Internet]. 2019. Available from: pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/liver-cancers/liver-cancers-overview [accessed Feb 2020]
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Microwave Ablation for treating liver metastases. 2016. Available from: nice.org.uk/guidance/IPG553 [accessed February 2020].
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Colorectal cancer: Guidance NG151. 2019. Available from: nice.org.uk/guidance/ng151 [accessed February 2020].
This information has been written, revised and edited by Macmillan Cancer Support’s Cancer Information Development team. It has been reviewed by expert medical and health professionals and people living with cancer. It has been approved by Dr Paul Ross, Consultant Medical Oncologist.
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